Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes
Prevalence varies among ethnic groups, ranging from 16% of black men to 37% of Hispanic women (Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH. JAMA 2002:287:358). Since the US population is aging, and since over half of American adults are overweight, metabolic syndrome is becoming more frequent; it may soon overtake cigarette smoking as the number one risk factor for cardiovascular disease. (Eckel and Krauss, Circulation 1998:97:2099-2100) Traits of Metabolic Syndrome Hypertension: Blood pressure 140/90 (World Health Organization criterion); 130/85 (Adult Treatment Panel criterion). Individuals on medication for hypertension fulfill this criterion Impaired glucose tolerance: Fasting glucose 100, abnormal glucose tolerance test, or documented diabetes Central obesity: Waist-to-hip ratio >0.9 for men, >.0.85 for women or BMI >30 (WHO); waist circumference >102 cm for men, >88 cm for women (ATP) Dyslipidemia: Triglyceride level 150 mg/dl for men and women (WHO and ATP); HDL cholesterol <35 mg/dl for men, <39 mg/dl for women (WHO); <40 mg/dl for men, <50 mg/dl for women (ATP) The World Health Organization has also added a diagnostic criterion for relative values of albumin and protein in urine. ( NIH publication no.
Link: What is Metabolic Syndrome?
What is metabolic syndrome? What causes metabolic syndrome?
Testing Memory The participants were given a series of memory tests and tests of cognitive function two and four years later. A memory test, a test of visual working memory, and a test of word fluency were part of the examination procedure. People who had metabolic syndrome were 20% more likely to have cognitive decline on a memory test than those who did not, according to the researchers. In addition, people with metabolic syndrome were 13% more likely to have cognitive decline on the visual working memory test, compared to people not diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Also, higher triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol were associated with poorer memory scores. And diabetes had an association with poorer visual working memory and word fluency scores.
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Big waistlines ‘best predict’ presence of metabolic syndrome
Low HDL cholesterol: HDL cholesterol is often referred to as good cholesterol because at higher levels it can actually protect against heart disease. Low HDL cholesterol is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome when it is below 40 mg/dL in men and below 50 mg/dL in women. High blood pressure: At least 130/85, or you are taking medication to control blood pressure. High fasting blood sugar: A blood sugar level of 100 mg/dL or greater after not eating for at least eight hours, or you are taking medication to control blood sugar. Metabolic syndrome is linked to insulin resistance, which means that your body is not able to use insulin properly to remove blood sugar from your blood. This is what causes high blood sugar levels in many people who go on to develop type 2 diabetes.
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Metabolic Syndrome Linked to Memory Loss
It involved 244 Chinese in Singapore aged 21 to 50, of whom 41 were identified to have metabolic syndrome based on established criteria. All had their height and weight, waist circumference, blood pressure and blood samples taken. The authors Ms Milawaty Nurjono of IMHs research division and psychiatrist Jimmy Lee said the studys findings cannot be generalised as it included only Chinese subjects who responded to advertisements. Further study with a larger group of subjects of all age groups is needed to confirm their findings, given the relatively small sample size made up of generally young individuals. The findings cannot be generalised to other ethnic groups as metabolic syndrome risk factors include age, weight, ethnicity and history of concurrent medical problems, said Dr Asim Shabbir, consultant at the National University Hospitals Centre for Obesity Management and Surgery.
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Moderate exercise will do. So say Duke University’s Johanna Johnson, MS, and colleagues. “Our motto in this group, after looking at all the data, is that some exercise is always better than none, and more is better than less,” Johnson tells WebMD. She’s a clinical research coordinator at Duke University Medical Center. Metabolic Syndrome Study Johnson’s team studied 334 adults with metabolic syndrome. People with metabolic syndrome have at least three of the following risk factors: Large waist Low levels of HDL (“good”) cholesterol High levels of triglycerides (a type of blood fat) Elevated blood pressure Elevated glucose (blood sugar) levels after fasting When the Duke study started, participants were 40-65 years old, overweight or obese, and physically inactive. None had a history of heart disease, diabetes, or high blood pressure .
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Metabolic Syndrome: How Much Exercise?
According to the Journal of Diabetes, 36.1% of adult men and 32.4% of women had metabolic syndrome in the USA in 2010. This was a considerable increase from 21.8% and 23.7% respectively in 2002 . What are the signs and symptoms of metabolic syndrome? A symptom is something only the patient feels, and describes to others, while a sign is detectable by others. An example of a symptom could be pain, and a sign might be a skin rash.